There are two primary considerations when deciding on which of the following sources is likely to produce big data: speed and expense. The fastest method by far is for data warehouses. Data warehouses consist of multiple large vertically scaled data centers clustered together in a warehouse-like structure. These warehouses rapidly process massive amounts of data and ingest it into any number of other systems with high-speed connectivity. Such a data center can serve as the heart of a corporate data hub or the epicenter of a data hub-like system.
In contrast, data warehouses are slower because they are spread over a number of different sites rather than centrally located within a data center. They also have to be maintained and updated regularly as data volume increases. These operations therefore rarely go entirely underway without some input from a handful of data scientists. In addition, data warehouses frequently include some sort of offsite data analysis application that can run in real-time over the Internet while the warehouse processes data.
MapReduce is another option that many data scientists favor. MapReduce is designed to co-ordinate the ingestion of chunks of data across several nodes in a cluster. It then minimizes the time required to process large volumes of data by intelligently merging nodes in each cluster. Although its central logic is based on algorithms, MapReduce can be executed by deploying just a few dozen MapReduce nodes across three geographically dispersed sites.
MapReduce is arguably the fastest application yet developed for handling the tremendous amount of data produced by modern databases. Despite this, it is less well suited to handling very large amounts of unstructured, complex, high volume data as compared to some of the other approaches. Its main advantage is that it allows users to reduce the cost of deploying unstructured data, and in turn, make more efficient use of existing on-site storage.
Kafka and Storm also came in the list of tools used to process large amounts of unstructured data. Kafka is an ideal choice for applications that require high rate concurrency along with a reliable, highly available message bus (Kafka Bus, shortly to be released). Storm is well known for being able to scale up data processing capacity by making use of multiple machines. It is based on the well-known queuing model and therefore is well suited to batch processing and streaming data. Enterprises adopting Storm will need to make use of either an in-house forklift or rent a multi-builder forklift, although the latter may not always be an option. Storm is therefore a good choice when running on-site systems that are heavily laden with data.
MapReduce is an open source project based on the framework and programming language Map/Stream. It is based on the idea that most large data elements can be processed quickly via an in-memory data store, rather than a traditional database. MapReduce encompasses both Map/Stream and off-the-shelf Map Reduce libraries providing the application with several off-the-shelf Map Reduce components.
In MapReduce, a collection of nodes is established and is known as a cluster. The cluster consists of master nodes and slave nodes. The master node is responsible for maintaining the state of the distributed system, while the slaves serve as agents who will process requests from consumers in the cluster. When a request comes into the cluster, it will be passed on to the secondary nodes, which are used to process the request.
The primary benefit of using MapReduce over other forms of data science applications is the speed of processing. MapReduce achieves this by effectively managing the concurrency of the application. In addition, because all requests are passed on to the secondary nodes, there is little need for in-memory analytics. In addition, because the application is written in Java, performance issues related to the lack of mature management support are not an issue. Also, because the MapReduce framework handles concurrency through a thread pool, there is no need for additional server-side tools or monitoring tools. These factors combine to make MapReduce one of the fastest growing and most popular forms of modern enterprise data science applications.